Energy and Energy Security for India: Industrial Scenario

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Energy and Energy Security for India, L&T EduTech Blog, Green Hydrogen through electrolysis

Energy and Energy Security for India: Industrial Scenario

The Indian Government’s National Green Hydrogen Mission aims for a green hydrogen production capacity of at least 5 MMT per annum by 2030, accompanied by a renewable energy addition of about 125 GW. This mission extends to industrial applications, but for the purpose of this discussion, emphasis will be placed on its implications for transportation, a task laden with technological, commercial, and economic challenges.
To delve into the basics, hydrogen is categorised into Grey, Blue, and Green based on the method of extraction.

Grey Hydrogen, derived from coal or Steam Methane Reformation (SMR), is often carbon-intensive.

Blue Hydrogenis produced via natural gas or coal gasification, with Carbon Capture Storage (CCS) or Carbon Capture Use (CCU) technologies to mitigate carbon emissions.

Lastly,Green Hydrogenis generated through water electrolysis, powered by renewable energy, showcasing its environmentally friendly nature. The more renewable energy there is in the electricity fuel mix, the “greener” the hydrogen produced.
Energy and Energy Security for India, L&T EduTech Blog, Green Hydrogen through electrolysis
In contemplating the adoption of hydrogen-based transportation, a scenario is envisioned wherein 10% of new cars, 25% of new 2-wheelers, and 10% of new trucks sold in India from 2026 onwards are hydrogen-based. However, this proposition entails significant challenges, notably the cost factor. The current cost of producing, storing, and transporting hydrogen using renewable sources is approximately $12 per litre (Rs 960 per litre), compared to the current petrol costs of Rs 100 per litre. Despite hydrogen’s superior energy density, the fuel bill alone could be 3-5 times higher than current costs.
Moreover, the production of hydrogen through steam methane reforming, a prevalent method globally, lacks sustainability. To meet the envisioned demand for hydrogen-based vehicles, setting up around 65 GW of incremental solar/renewable capacity annually is imperative. Factoring in electric vehicle requirements, the total incremental capacity surges to almost 90 GW, a monumental task considering the existing installed capacity of 70 GW.
The water requirement, though not substantial, demands consideration, especially given the water shortages experienced in our cities during the summer season. These multifaceted challenges underscore the complexities and considerations in the potential transition to hydrogen as a significant player in the transportation sector.
Abhijit Santra
Abhijit Santra


Author Bio

Abhijit Santra, a Civil Engineering graduate with 8.5 years of experience, excels in high-rise residential and commercial steel structure construction projects. Having worked with Shapoorji Palonji and Company Pvt. Ltd., Abhijit joined Larsen & Toubro Limited as a Senior Engineer QA QC in the Building & Factories IC in June 2022, contributing significantly to the Bangladesh IT/Hi-Tech Park Project.
In just over a year at L&T, Abhijit has achieved remarkable milestones, winning the 4th ATL Bizathon Contest, receiving the Star Learner Award on the 16th Annual ATL Day, and being a finalist in the Art Beats competitions. Additionally, Abhijit secured victories in the LearnFest Contest, ATLNext Skill Benchmark 5 BY 5 Challenge and the Coursera Contest – 2 in 1 Dhamaka. With a proven track record of excellence, Abhijit continues to make impactful contributions to the field of engineering and construction.
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